Exploring Writing Strategies for Guiding Readers: The Use of Metadiscourse in CEFR-Based Textbooks
This paper explores which text characteristics could be used to discriminate the texts of learning materials for
EFL (English as a foreign language) learners at individual levels. To assess the learners’ level, the study introduces the
CEFR (Common European Framework of Reference for Languages). The CEFR descriptors of individual levels are regarded
as useful guidelines to describe achievements of learners of foreign languages. The focus is on the use of metadiscourse such
as discourse markers in the textbooks based on the CEFR. The results of corpus analysis on 95 textbooks indicate that the
frequency and complexity of discourse marker usage can be used as useful indicators to identify specific learners’ levels.
Students should develop writing strategies for relevant use of such discourse markers.
Keywords: Writing Strategies, Metadiscourse, Discourse Markers, Corpus Analysis, CEFR.