Paper Title
Synthesis of Teaching and Learning Research for Constructing Framework to Develop Students’ Reasoning Skills in Learning Mathematics

The objectives of this study were (1) to synthesis teaching and learning research related to reasoning skills, and (2) to construct framework for developing teaching and learning high school mathematics based on mathematical reasoning skills from synthesis research. The samples of research were the mathematics education research focused on mathematical processes and skills related toreasoning skills and published in 2001 – 2018. There were three categories of research synthesis: (1) roles of teachers and learners in developing reasoning skills, (2) active learning activities to develop reasoning skills, and (3) learning environment. The researchers focused on two topics of each category: ‘Research Objectives/Research Questions’ and ‘Research Results’. The analysis of results were determined by using ‘Percentage of Research Objectives/ Research Questions’ and ‘Content Analysis of Research Results’ before constructing the framework to develop classroom action research for students’ reasoning skills in learning mathematics. The results from18 prior research studies showed that there were 15 studies (83.33%) applied active learning approach, and the other 3 studies (16.67%) applied passive learning approach. The popular learning activity was ‘Questioning’ with the percentage of 38.89%. For learning environment, the result showed that ‘Participation’ was high percentage of usage with 55.56%. In addition, the framework to develop mathematical reasoning skillswas meta-cognitive reasoning through interaction and real-life context which combined basic reasoning, critical reasoning, and creative reasoning. For further study, the researchers may categorize in different subdivisions for synthesis research such as effective teaching for mathematical reasoning not only focus on types of reasoning or factors to support teaching and learning mathematical reasoning. Index terms - Synthesis of research, Reasoning skills, Active learning