Paper Title
Level of Information and Communication Technology Competence among SME’s in the Selected Gulf Cooperation Council Countries: Basis for an Action Plan

With the researchers’ awareness of the importance of competencies in computer applications and security in the conduct of on-line transactions, this study determined the SME supervisors’ levels of competence in computer applications. Five types of computer applications were involved in the study; namely, Electronic Spreadsheet usage, Word processing, Database Management, Presentation preparation and Desktop Publishing. The study also determined the SME supervisors’ levels of competence in assuring security in the conduct of on-line transactions. The security measures involved in the study were assurance of the authenticity of data, production of proofs of transaction, and access control. The study used the descriptive-survey method, with the questionnaire as the instrument of data collection. Data were collected from 180 SME supervisors in Muscat, Ras Al Khaima, and Manama. The researchers determined whether the levels of competence of the SME supervisors were Exemplary, Advanced, Intermediate, Developing, or Beginning. Index Terms - Information and Communications Technology, Competence, Gulf Cooperation Council, Small and Medium Enterprises