The Relationship between Tourism and Asian Sustainability: A Case Study of Major Tourist’s Arrival Countries
This study uses panel data from 1997 to 2017 to explain the status and trends of inbound tourism in some Asian countries, and analyzes the relationship between tourism and Asian economic sustainability. This study uses the growth decomposition method and Granger causality technology. The growth decomposition methodology studies the contribution of tourism to the Asian economy. The results show that, except for the special period of financial crisis and epidemics, the total real GDP per capita of tourism in the five Southeast Asian countries shows a positive growth trend. China's tourism industry contributes the most to GDP. But Japan has always shown negative growth. Panel Granger causality examines the dynamic causality between tourism demand and economic, social, and environmental sustainability. The results show that the increase in the number of tourists entering has a one-way Granger causality relationship with the actual per capita GDP. Then test Granger causality for each country. According to the Granger causality test results of the six countries, China's energy and tourism industry has a two-way Granger causality. Japan's energy has a one-way Granger causality with tourism; South Korea's tourism has a one-way Granger causality with energy. The forest area of Singapore and Indonesia has a one-way Granger causality with the tourism industry. The tourism industries of Indonesia, Singapore, South Korea and Japan have a one-way Granger causality with temperature changes. Singapore’s per capita real GDP has a one-way Granger causality with tourism. Indonesia's tourism industry has a one-way Granger causality with real GDP per capita. The Gini coefficient of the Thai tourism industry has a one-way Granger causality. China's tourism industry has a one-way Granger causality for household consumption, while Singapore's household consumption has a one-way Granger causality for tourism. Indonesia and China's tourism industry and population have a one-way Granger causality. Singapore, Thailand and Japan have Granger causality with regard to tourism. There is a two-way Granger causality between China's tourism industry and employment rate. In terms of employment rate, the tourism industries of Japan and Indonesia have Granger causality. The sustainable variables have Granger causality with tourism. Governments of Southeast Asian countries can reduce the use of energy and lower emission levels, and should take the necessary measures and regulations to keep Southeast Asian countries clean. In order to develop sustainable tourism, encourage the development of related green industries.
Keywords - Sustainability, Tourism, Growth Decomposition Methodology, Granger Causality, Economic Growth, Asia Countries.