Paper Title
Is Science the Mother of All Practical and Intellectual Virtues? A Study on Bertrand Russell

Is science the mother of all practical and intellectual virtues? Will science and technology bring us a future Golden Age where the main problems of mankind will be solved? Bertrand Russell’s ideas of science and technology in relation to culture and human destiny are considered to be among the most influential of the 20th century. While the impact of these ideas in academic circles and public opinion has been widely acknowledged, the way that Russell's thought changed has received less attention. This paper argues that Russell’s understanding of the relationships of science and progress was revised dramatically after War World I. In his 1913 article "The Place of Science in a Liberal Education", Russell presented science as a privileged form of knowledge that would bring unlimited progress and happiness to humankind. Nevertheless, after the horrors of War World I, Russell became aware of the unthinkable power that modern technology bestowed upon 20th tyrannies. His view of science as the almighty savior that would erase the darkness of ages past quickly turned into ironic skepticism. This radical shift can be clearly appreciated in Russell's article "Icarus or the Future of Science", published in 1924. There, he vigorously criticized the image of a future of human happiness provided by scientific discoveries. His experiences with statesmen and governments, Russell argued, compelled him to fear that science would be used to promote the despotic power of dominant groups. This parallels the mythical story of Icarus, who after having been taught to fly by his father Daedalus, was destroyed by his rashness. Similarly, this could be the destiny of scientifically developed human race. For the rest of his career, Russell insisted on the necessity of moral and philosophical reform to avoid a future of scientifically-produced apocalypse. Keywords- science, technology, 20th century, Bertrand Russell, fundamentalism, golden age, apocalypse.