21st Century Expatriates
Expatriates are persons who live and work for extended periods of time in foreign countries. In the current
investigation, the changing nature of expatriate life in the 21st century was examined. Specifically, the use of smartphone
technology and its effects on expatriate adaptation was analyzed. Additionally, expatriates and their assignments were
investigated for possible changes as well. The findings demonstrate that (1) smartphone use positively impacts adjustment, (2)
expatriate assignments tend to be shorter in duration than in the past, (3) there are more female expatriate than before, and (4)
expatriates continue to self-initiate in the 21st century.
Index Terms- Expatriate Adjustment, Expatriate Duration, Self-Initiated Expatriates, Technology, Women Expatriates