Second Hand Smoking Among Female in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Secondhand smoking (SHS) or passive smoking is environmental exposure to tobacco smoke by non-smokers
against their will (Alanazi,A 2015). SHS and active smokers experiences the same tobacco smoke toxins but at different
levels (Leonardi-Bee, 2011) and most of the diseases caused by active smoking can be caused by passive smoking as well
(Barnoya J, 2005) (Ding D, 2009) (Lippert W, 2012).Yet, a study showed that passive smokers are 2.5 at more risk of
exposure to cancerous substances than active smokers (Anderson L, 2012)( - Louie K,2011). Worldwide study of 192
countries conducted in 2004 revealed that 33% of male non-smokers, 40% of children, and 35% of female non-smokers were
exposed to SHS. It has been estimated that this exposure caused 65 thousands deaths from lower respiratory infections, 379
thousands from ischemic heart disease, 21400 from lung cancer and 36900 from asthma (Öberg, M, 2011) . More precisely,
SHS is associated with increased risk of stroke, lung cancer, cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory symptoms(Kim,
Y, 2015). Regarding the cardiovascular system, negative smoke exposure rise the risk of coronary heart disease up to 25-
30%(Heidrich J,2007) .In comparison with lung cancer, the single major different in the relation between passive smoke
exposure and ischemic heart disease: for lung cancer, carcinogenic effect caused by chronic exposure, whereas for ischemic
heart diseases, the adverse effects can be developed by acute (brief) exposure .(Davis J,1989)( Wells A,1994)(Callinan
J,2010)(Dinas P,2014)( Dacunto P,2014). Exposure to smoke trigger atherosclerosis which lead to the development of acute
coronary syndrome( Dunbar, A,2013).
In non-smokers, women are at more risk of exposure to SHS than men at home, and they have a higher chance of
experiencing depression symptoms due to SHS (Jung, S. 2015). Also, they have higher chance of developing breast cancer
especially post-menauposal according to a study held in china(Li, Bin, 2015). In non-smokers, there are inequalities in the
risk of diseases from second-hand smoke according to sex. Women have the greatest risk of deaths resulted from SHS as
47% of the total deaths from SHS occurred in women (Öberg, M, 2011). A study about correlation between SHS and
infertility and abortion showed that childhood and adolescents experience of exposure to SHS will increases the risk of
infertility and abortion (Amirkhani, J, 2014). According to WHO (2014) in Saudi Arabia, the prevalence of adult tobacco
smokers is 23.7% among male and 1.5% among female. ( WHO ). another study in Madinah, Saudi Arabia about SHS
among intermediate and secondary school students showed that the prevalence of exposure to SHS was 49.3% outside
households compared to 32.7% at home, with the overall exposure of 25%. (Al-Zalabani, A. 2015). However, no study has
been performed to estimate the prevalence of SHS among female at different ages in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, as a vulnerable
group at risk.
The objective of our study is to determine the prevalence of exposure to SHS among female in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Keywords: secondhand smoking , passive smoking , female, women , Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.