Comparison of High and Upper-Middle Income Level Countries in terms of Sustainable Energy
Sustainable energy is crucial for sustainable development. Access to modern energy services is fundamental for
human development. One fifth of people in the world still lacks of access to electricity. This is one of the major barriers to
eliminate poverty. Throughout the world, inefficient energy use damages economic productivity and energy-related emissions
which contributes significantly to dangerous warming of world. One of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is
Sustainable energy for All (SE4All), which is global initiative co-chaired by the United Nations and World Bank. SE4All has
three key development objectives for the energy sector to ensure universal access to modern energy services, double the global
rate of improvement in energy efficiency, and double the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix by 2030. In this
study, High and upper-middle income level countries are compared in terms of SE4All indicators covering 2012. The preferred
method is logistic regression analysis, as a special type of regression analysis where binary dependent variable is related to a set
of independent variables. As the dependent variable is country income levels, the independent variables are indicators of
energy access, energy efficiency, renewable energy in our study. The logistic regression analysis is used to assess the
association between SE4All indicators and country income levels.
Key words - Energy indicators, Income level, Logistic Regression Analysis, Sustainable Energy for All (SE4All).