International Journal of Management and Applied Science (IJMAS)
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Statistics report
Nov. 2018
Submitted Papers : 80
Accepted Papers : 10
Rejected Papers : 70
Acc. Perc : 12%
Issue Published : 54
Paper Published : 3316
No. of Authors : 6857
  Journal Paper




Paper Title :
Second Hand Smoking Among Female in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Author :Samaher Ashgan, Weam Daba, Reem Altaifi, Rawan Sharwani

Article Citation :Samaher Ashgan ,Weam Daba ,Reem Altaifi ,Rawan Sharwani , (2017 ) " Second Hand Smoking Among Female in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia " , International Journal of Management and Applied Science (IJMAS) , pp. 57-59, Volume-3,Issue-2

Abstract : Secondhand smoking (SHS) or passive smoking is environmental exposure to tobacco smoke by non-smokers against their will (Alanazi,A 2015). SHS and active smokers experiences the same tobacco smoke toxins but at different levels (Leonardi-Bee, 2011) and most of the diseases caused by active smoking can be caused by passive smoking as well (Barnoya J, 2005) (Ding D, 2009) (Lippert W, 2012).Yet, a study showed that passive smokers are 2.5 at more risk of exposure to cancerous substances than active smokers (Anderson L, 2012)( - Louie K,2011). Worldwide study of 192 countries conducted in 2004 revealed that 33% of male non-smokers, 40% of children, and 35% of female non-smokers were exposed to SHS. It has been estimated that this exposure caused 65 thousands deaths from lower respiratory infections, 379 thousands from ischemic heart disease, 21400 from lung cancer and 36900 from asthma (Öberg, M, 2011) . More precisely, SHS is associated with increased risk of stroke, lung cancer, cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory symptoms(Kim, Y, 2015). Regarding the cardiovascular system, negative smoke exposure rise the risk of coronary heart disease up to 25- 30%(Heidrich J,2007) .In comparison with lung cancer, the single major different in the relation between passive smoke exposure and ischemic heart disease: for lung cancer, carcinogenic effect caused by chronic exposure, whereas for ischemic heart diseases, the adverse effects can be developed by acute (brief) exposure .(Davis J,1989)( Wells A,1994)(Callinan J,2010)(Dinas P,2014)( Dacunto P,2014). Exposure to smoke trigger atherosclerosis which lead to the development of acute coronary syndrome( Dunbar, A,2013). In non-smokers, women are at more risk of exposure to SHS than men at home, and they have a higher chance of experiencing depression symptoms due to SHS (Jung, S. 2015). Also, they have higher chance of developing breast cancer especially post-menauposal according to a study held in china(Li, Bin, 2015). In non-smokers, there are inequalities in the risk of diseases from second-hand smoke according to sex. Women have the greatest risk of deaths resulted from SHS as 47% of the total deaths from SHS occurred in women (Öberg, M, 2011). A study about correlation between SHS and infertility and abortion showed that childhood and adolescents experience of exposure to SHS will increases the risk of infertility and abortion (Amirkhani, J, 2014). According to WHO (2014) in Saudi Arabia, the prevalence of adult tobacco smokers is 23.7% among male and 1.5% among female. ( WHO ). another study in Madinah, Saudi Arabia about SHS among intermediate and secondary school students showed that the prevalence of exposure to SHS was 49.3% outside households compared to 32.7% at home, with the overall exposure of 25%. (Al-Zalabani, A. 2015). However, no study has been performed to estimate the prevalence of SHS among female at different ages in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, as a vulnerable group at risk. The objective of our study is to determine the prevalence of exposure to SHS among female in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Keywords: secondhand smoking , passive smoking , female, women , Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Type : Research paper

Indexed : Google Scholar


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